How to fix: Missing gnome-control-center on Ubuntu 20.04

Some days ago my dad upgraded his Laptop from Ubuntu 18.04 to 20.04. After doing so the package gnome-control-center went missing. Because this is GNOME’s main interface to configure various aspects of the desktop, the computer was basically unusable. The settings could not be opened through the search function or the system tray menu. In fact you could not access the settings anywhere. Because I spent quite some time fixing the problem without a reinstallation, I decided to share my solution.
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